РОЗВИТОК КОНЦЕПЦІЇ СТРАТЕГІЧНИХ КОМУНІКАЦІЙ ЄС

Автор(и)

  • Сергій Федонюк Волинський національний університет імені Лесі Українки
  • Ігор Карпук Волинський національний університет імені Лесі Українки

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.29038/2524-2679-2022-02-44-65

Ключові слова:

кібербезпека, міжнародна політика, Європейський Союз

Анотація

Ми дослідили основні тенденції розвитку підходів Європейського Союзу у сфері стратегічних комунікацій. Ця діяльність пов’язана з викликами й загрозами безпеці у світлі стратегічних пріоритетів об’єднання. Концепція стратегічної комунікації змінювалась із часом і сьогодні формується під зростаючим впливом гібридних загроз та дезінформації, особливо у зв’язку з початком російської гібридної агресії проти України у 2014 р. Також суттєво впливає на систему стратегічних комунікацій міжнародна ситуація, що відображається на загальних стратегічних пріоритетах того, хто їх здійснює. Рішення в Європейському Союзі та його країнах-членах приймаються з урахуванням діяльності головних міжнародних акторів і партнерів, зокрема стратегічних рішень у США, НАТО, G7. Це може спричиняти пошук нових концептів, таких як стратегічна автономія з відповідними цілями стратегічних комунікацій. У цьому дослідженні проведено аналіз основних стратегічних документів вторинного права Європейського Союзу у сфері інформаційної безпеки та безпеки мереж на предмет виявлення відповідності одному з підходів. Детальніше розглянуто «Стратегію кібербезпеки для цифрової декади», прийняту наприкінці 2020 р., і пов’язані з нею документи. Установлено близькість підходів Європейського Союзу до західної моделі інформацій- ної (кібер) безпеки, його активність щодо її просування у світі. Також ми розглянули ініціативи держав членів Європейського Союзу щодо активного впливу на перебіг процесів міжнародної співпраці у цій сфері, зокрема з урахуванням подій і тенденцій, пов’язаних із діяльністю провідних акторів на рівні ООН. У підсумку можемо зробити висновок про все більш чітке оформлення політики ЄС у сфері інформаційної (кібер) безпеки та просування його конструктивної позиції з цього питання на світовій арені.

Посилання

Barrihna, Andre (2018). Virtual Neighbors: Russia and the EU in Cyberspace. Insight Turkey, Summer, 20, No. 3. URL: https://www.insightturkey.com/commentar- ies/virtual-neighbors-russia-and-the-eu-in-cyberspace

NATO (2009, April). NATO -Official text: Strasbourg / Kehl Summit Declara- tion Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Strasbourg / Kehl. URL: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natol- ive/news_52837

NATO (2009, September). NATO Strategic Communications Policy.

Cornish, P., Lindley-French, J., & Yorke, C. (2011, September). Strategic com- munications and national strategy. Chatham House. URL: https://www.chathamhouse. org/sites/default/files/r0911es%E2%80%93stratcomms.pdf

Bird Conrad (2008). Public Diplomacy in a Globalised World. Strategic Com- munication and Behaviour Change: Lessons from Domestic Policy, p. 106–119.

Taylor, Philip (2009). Public Diplomacy and Strategic Communications, in Snow

N. and Taylor Philip M. (eds), Routledge Handbook of Public Diplomacy. London. Rout- ledge, 2009, p. 10.

UK Cabinet Office, The National Security Strategy of the United Kingdom: Se- curity in an Interdependent World, Cm 7291 (London: The Stationery Office, March 2008), p. 7.

Cornish, P., Hughes, R. and Livingstone, D. (2009). Cyberspace and the Nation- al Security of the United Kingdom: Threats and Responses. London: Chatham House, p. 19–20.

Gunaratna, R., Jerard, J. and Rubin, L. (2011), Terrorist Rehabilitation and Coun- ter-Radicalisation: New Approaches to Counter-Terrorism. London. Routledge.

Cornish, Paul (2009). The United States and counterinsurgency: «political first, political last, political always»’. International Affairs, vol. 85, No. 1, January.

Tatham, Steve (2008). Strategic Communications: A Primer, ARAG Special Series, vol. 8, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom.

Christopher, Paul (2011). Strategic Communication: Origins, Concepts and Current Debates. Santa Barbara. Praeger.

Cabinet Office, (2011). CONTEST: The United Kingdom’s Strategy for Countering Terrorism London: The Stationery Office.

US Department of Defense (2009). Strategic Communication Science and Technol- ogy Plan: Current Activities, Capability Gap and Areas for Further Investment.

US Joint Forces Command, ‘Commander’s Handbook for Strategic Communica- tion and Communication Strategy’(2010), vol. 3: Headquarters, Department of the US Army (2009). Field Manual 3–24.2, ‘Tactics in Counterinsurgency‘, p. 288.

Headquarters, Department of the US Army (2009). «Tactics in Counterinsurgency». URL: https://armypubs.army.mil/epubs/DR_pubs/DR_a/pdf/web/fm3_24x2.pdf

Goldman, E. (2007). Strategic communication: A tool for asymmetric warfare. Small Wars Journal. URL: https://smallwarsjournal.com/blog/strategic-communication-a- tool-for-asymmetric-warfare

NATO (1999). The Alliance's Strategic Concept URL: https://www.nato.int/cps/ en/natohq/official_texts_27433.htm#:~:text=At%20their%20Summit%20meeting%20 in,years%20of%20the%20Cold%20War.

NATO (2010) Strategic Concept 2010. URL: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/ topics_82705.htm

Allison, R. (2014, November). Russian 'deniable' intervention in Ukraine: How and why Russia broke the rules. International Affairs, 90(6), p. 1255–1297. URL: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-2346.12170

Baezner, M. (2018). Cyber and Information warfare in the Ukrainian conflict. Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH. URL: https://css.ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/ special-interest/gess/cis/center-for-securitie sstudies/pdfs/20181003_MB_HS_RUS- UKR%20V2_rev.pdf

Bradshaw, S., & Howard, P. (2019). The global disinformation order. 2019 global inventory of organised social media manipulation (Working Paper 2019.2). Oxford Inter- net Institute. URL: https://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/w pcontent/uploads/sites/93/2019/09/ CyberTroop-Report19.pdf

Cottiero, C., Kucharski, K., Olimpieva, E., & Orttung, R. W. (2015). War of words: The impact of Russian state television on the Russian Internet. Nationalities Papers. URL:. https://doi.org/p

Driscoll, J., & Steinert-Threlkeld, Z. (2020). Social media and Russian territorial ir- redentism: Some facts and a conjecture. Post-Soviet Affairs, p. 101–121. URL: https://www. tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1060586X.2019.1701879

Gibson, K. H. (2019, September). Defence News Conference Lessons learned from NATO's hybrid battlefield [Panel].

Hoffman, F. G. (2018). Examining Complex Forms of Conflict: Gray Zone and Hybrid Challenges. PRISM, vol. 7 (4), National Defense University. URL: https://cco.ndu. edu/News/Article/1680696/examining-complex-formsof-conflict-gray-zone-and-hybrid- challenges/

Laity, M. (2018). NATO and Strategic Communications: 'The Story So Far'. The Three Swords Magazine, p. 65–73. URL: http://www.jwc.nato.int/images/stories/threes- words/THREESWORDSMARCH2018_Websitereleased.pdf

Marsden, C., & Meyer, T. (2019). Regulating disinformation with artificial in- telligence. European Parliamentary Research Service. URL: https://www.europarl.eu- ropa.eu/RegData/etudes/STUD/2019/624279/EPRS_STU(2019)624279_EN.pdf

Martens, B., Aguiar, L., Gómez-Herrera, E., & Mueller-Langer, F. (2018). The Digital Transformation of News Media and the Rise of Disinformation and Fake News (JRC Digital Economy Working Paper No. 2018–02). European Commission, Joint Re- search Centre. URL: https://www.ssrn.com/abstract=3164170

Nemr, C., & Gangware, W. (2019). Weapons of mass distraction: Foreign State- sponsored disinformation in the digital age. Park Advisors. URL: https://www.state.gov/ wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Weapons-of-MassDistraction-Foreign-State-Sponsored- Disinformation-in-the-Digital-Age.pdf

Nimmo, B., Barojan, D., & Aleksejeva, N. (2017). Russian Narratives on NA- TO's Deployment. DFRLab. URL: https://medium.com/dfrlab/russian-narratives-on- natos-deployment-616e19c3d194

Norberg, J. (2018). Training for War – Russia's Strategic-level Military Exercis- es 2009–2017 (FOI-R--4627--SE; p. 110). Swedish Defence Research Agency–Ministry of Defence. URL: https://www.foi.se/rest-api/report/FOI-R-- 4627—SE

Peter, M., Alexander, S., Cambridge, A., Renee, S., Kang, R., Kiefer, S., Takaya- ma, K., Laci, F., Michael, G., & Katie, M. (2019). Combating targeted disinformation campaigns. A whole-of-society issue. 2019 Public-private analytic exchange program. URL: https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ia/ia_combatti ngtargeted- disinformation-campaigns.pdf

Rusnáková, S. (2017). Russian New Art of Hybrid Warfare in Ukraine. Slovak Journal of Political Sciences, 17 (vol. 3), p. 343–380.

Sari, A. (2019). Legal resilience in an era of grey zone conflicts and hybrid threats (Working Paper No. 2019/1). Exeter Centre for International Law. URL https:// papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3315682

Snegovaya, M. (2015). Putin's information warfare in Ukraine. Soviet origins of Russia's hybrid warfare. Institute for the Study of War. URL: http://www.understandingwar. org/sites/default/files/Russian%20Report%201%20Putin%27s%20Information%20War- fare%20in%20Ukraine-%20Soviet%20Origins%20of%20Russias%20Hybrid%20Warfare. pdf

Vendil, C., & Oxenstierna, S. (2017). Russian Think Tanks and Soft Power (FOI-R- 4451-SE). FOI–Swedish Defence ResearchAgency. URL: https://www.foi.se/rest-api/report/ FOI-R--4451--SE

Wilson, A. (2014). Ukraine Crisis: What it means for the West. Yale University Press.

US Senate. (2019). Report of the selected committee on intelligence on Russian ac- tive measures campaigns and interference in the 2016 U.S. election. vol.1: Russian efforts against election infrastructure with additional views. URL: https://www.intelligence.senate. gov/sites/default/files/documents/Report_Volume1.pdf

UK Ministry of Defence. (2019). Defence Strategic Communication: An approach to formulating and executing strategy (Joint Doctrine Note No. 2/19). Development, Concepts and Doctrine Centre. URL: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/ system/uploads/attachment_data/file/8043 19/20190523-dcdc_doctrine_uk_Defence_Stra- trategic_Communication_jdn_2_19.pdf

High Level Group on fake news and online disinformation- European Commission. (2018). A multidimensional approach to disinformation – Report of the independent High Level Group on fake news and online disinformation DOI:10.2759/739290). URL: https:// op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/6ef4df8b4cea-11e8-be1d-01aa75ed71a1

Hybrid CoE. (2019). Countering disinformation: News media and legal resilience [COI Records]. European Centre of Excellence and the Media Pool, part of the Finnish Emergency Supply Organization in Helsinki. URL: https://www.hybridcoe.fi/wp-content/ uploads/2019/11/News-Media-and-Legal-Resilience_2019_rgb.pdf

Mueller, R. (2019). Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election. US Department of Justice. URL: https://www.justice.gov/stor- age/report.pdf

NATO StratCom CoE. (2019). Hybrid Threats: A Strategic Communications Per- spective. NATO. URL: https://www.stratcomcoe.org/download/file/fid/80212

NATO StratCom CoE. (2020). About Strategic Communications | StratCom. URL: https://www.stratcomcoe.org/about-strategic-communications

Alandete, D. (2017, November 10). European Union fights the Kremlin's pro- paganda machine. El País. URL: https://english.elpais.com/elpais/2017/11/09/ineng- lish/1510218067_521677.html

Coyer, P. (2016). The Patriarch, The Pope, Ukraine And The Disintegration Of 'The Russian World'. Forbes. URL: https://www.forbes.com/sites/paulcoyer/2016/03/20/the-pa- triarch-the-pope-ukraine-and-thedisintegration-of-the-russian-world/#10471ebd2523

Global Spain. (2019). The truth about Catalonia's bid for independence. URL:https://www.thisistherealspain.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/THE-TRUTH-ABOUT- THE-CATALANINDEPENDENCE-BID-28-nov-2019.pdf

Segura, C. (2017, September). Assange alienta que la rebelión en Cataluña se extienda a nivel global. El País. URL: https://elpais.com/ccaa/2017/09/26/catalun- ya/1506456387_836185.html

Biswas, A., & Tortajada, C. (2018, February 23). China's soft power is on the rise. China Daily. URL: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201802/23/WS5a8f59a- 9a3106e7dcc13d7b8.html

Chatzky, A., & McBride J. (2020). China's Massive Belt and Road Initiative. Council on Foreign Relations. URL: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/chinas-massive- belt-and-road-initiative

European Commission and the High Representative. (2019). EU-China – A strate- gic outlook. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/sites/beta-political/files/communi- cation-eu-china-a-strategicoutlook.pdf

European Commission and the High Representative. (2020). Tackling Covid-19 disinformation – Getting the facts right. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/ communication-tackling-Covid-19-disinformationgetting-facts-right_en.pdf

Gil, T. (2020, March 18). Coronavirus: Cómo el virus se volvió parte de la 'guerra' política entre EE.UU. y China. BBC News Mundo. URL: https://www.bbc.com/ mundo/noticias-internacional-51938799

Karnitschnig, M. (2020, March 18). China is winning the coronavirus propa- ganda war. POLITICO. URL: https://www.politico.eu/article/coronavirus-china-win- ning-propaganda-war/

Molander Roger C., Riddile Andrew, Wilson Peter A. (1996) Strategic Informa- tion Warfare. A New Face of War. RAND. MR-661-OSD. URL: https://www.rand.org/ pubs/monograph_reports/MR661.html

Nato Standard ajp-3.10.1 Allied Joint Doctrine for Psychological Operations. Edition B version 1. With uk national elements. September 2014. URL: url: https:// assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/450521/20150223-AJP_3_10_1_PSYOPS_with_UK_Green_pages.pdf

Office of the Secretary of Defense. National Security Strategy. URL: https://his- tory.defense.gov/Historical-Sources/National-Security-Strategy/

NATO Deterrence and defence. URL: https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/top- ics_133127.htm

The Interim National Security Strategic Guidance. Congressional Research Ser- vice, March 29, 2021. URL: https://sgp.fas.org/crs/natsec/IF11798.pdf

ALLIED JOINT DOCTRINE FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS—AJP-3.10.1 EDITION B. URL: https://nso.nato.int/nso/nsdd/main/standards/stanag-details/8458/ EN?tab=ratifications

NATO 2030: MAKING A STRONG ALLIANCE EVEN STRONGER. URL: https://www.nato.int/nato2030/

G7 (2018). Charlevoix Commitment on Defending Democracy from Foreign Threats. URL: https://www.mofa.go.jp/files/000373846.pdf

Nato Standard ajp-3.10.1 Allied Joint Doctrine for Psychological Operations.

Edition B version 1. With uk national elements. September 2014. URL: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/ file/450521/20150223-AJP_3_10_1_PSYOPS_with_UK_Green_pages.pdf

Shared vision, common action. A stronger Europe: a global strategy for the Eu- ropean Union’s foreign and security policy. URL: https://op.europa.eu/en/publication- detail/-/publication/3eaae2cf-9ac5-11e6-868c-01aa75ed71a1

European Union Institute for Security Studies (2016). EU strategic communica- tions with a view to counteracting propaganda. European Parliament. URL: http://www. europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2016/578008/EXPO_IDA(2016)578008_ EN.pdf

Strategic communications as a key factor in countering hybrid threats (2021). By VillarGarcía JuanPablo, Carlota Tarín Quirós, Blázquez Julio Soria, Galán Carlos Pascual, Galán Carlos Cordero. STOA. European Union. URL: https://www.europarl. europa.eu/thinktank/en/document/EPRS_STU(2021)656323

Where will the EU’s Strategic Compass point? European Parliamentary Re- search Service (2021). URL: https://epthinktank.eu/2021/10/07/where-will-the-eus- strategic-compass-point/

Borrell Josep (2021). A Strategic Compass for Europe. URL: https:// www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/eu-strategic-compass-by-josep-borrell- 2021-11?barrier=accesspaylog

Questions and answers: a background for the Strategic Compass. EEAS (2021). URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/97895/questions- and-answers-background-strategic-compass_en

A Strategic Compass for a stronger EU security and defence in the next decade. Council of the EU. Press release (2022). URL: https://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/ press/press-releases/2022/03/21/a-strategic-compass-for-a-stronger-eu-security-and- defence-in-the-next-decade/

A Strategic Compass for Security and Defence – For a European Union that pro- tects its citizens, values and interests and contributes to international peace and security. URL: https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-7371-2022-INIT/en/pdf

EU Rapid Deployment Capacity. EEAS factsheet. URL: https://www.eeas.eu- ropa.eu/eeas/eu-rapid-deployment-capacity_en

A Strategic Compass for the EU. EEAS factsheet. URL: https://www.eeas.eu- ropa.eu/eeas/strategic-compass-eu-0_en

Organisation chart of the EEAS. EEAS (2021). URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/ headquarters/headquarters-homepage/3602/organisation-chart-eeas_en

Strategic communication. EEAS. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/ headquarters-homepage/100/strategic-communications_en

Strategic Communication Press and Information Officer. EEAC. URL: https:// eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage/83986/strategic-communication- press-and-information-officer_en

Strategic communications as a key factor in countering hybrid threats. By Vil- larGarcía JuanPablo, Tarín Quirós Carlota, Soria Julio Blázquez, Pascual Carlos Galán, Cordero Carlos Galán. STOA. (2021). URL: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/thinktank/ en/document/EPRS_STU(2021)656323

Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council. Joint Framework on countering hybrid threats a European Union response. Brussels (2016). 18 final. URL: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52016JC0018

European Agenda on Security – Legislative documents. European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/internal-security/europe- an-agenda-security-legislative-documents_en

EU Global Strategy. EEAS. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/topics/eu-global-strat- egy_en

European Defence Action Plan. Roadmap. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/smart-reg- ulation/roadmaps/docs/2016_grow_006_cwp_european_defence_action_plan_en.pdf

Joint Communication to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Cybersecurity Strat- egy of the European Union: An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace (2013). 1 final. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/policies/eu-cyber-security/cybsec_comm_en.pdf

Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council. European Energy Security Strategy /* COM/2014/0330 final */. URL: https:// eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A52014DC0330

European Union Maritime Security Strategy as adopted by the Council (Gen- eral Affairs) (June 2014). URL: https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST%20 11205%202014%20INIT/EN/pdf

Joint Communication to the European Parliament and the Council. Joint Framework on countering hybrid threats a European Union response. Brussels, 6.4.2016 JOIN (2016) 18 final. URL: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52016JC0018

Communication from the commission to the european parliament, the council, the european economic and social committee and the committee of the regions. Tackling online disinformation: a European Approach. COM/2018/236 final. URL: https://eur- lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52018DC0236

Questions & Answers: Reinforcing democracy and integrity of elections. Eu- ropean Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/qa- nda_21_6212

European Democracy: Commission sets out new laws on political advertising, electoral rights and party funding. European Commission. URL: https://ec.europa.eu/ commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_21_6118

Code of Practice on Disinformation. European Commission. URL: https://digi- tal-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/code-practice-disinformation

Joint Communication to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Cconomic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Re- gions. Action Plan against Disinformation. Brussels, 5.12.2018 JOIN (2018) 36 final. URL: https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/default/files/action_plan_against_disinformation.pdf

Audit preview Information on an upcoming audit. EU action plan against disin- formation. European Court of Auditors. (2020). URL: https://www.eca.europa.eu/lists/ ecadocuments/ap20_04/ap_disinformation_en.pdf

Kushnir, V. (2020). Proposals for improving the legal mechanism on strategic communications in the armed forces of Ukraine, Derzhavne upravlinnya: udoskonalen- nya ta rozvytok. Vol. 10, URL: http://www.dy.nayka.com.ua/?op=1&z=1796

##submission.downloads##

Опубліковано

2022-06-28